Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is indicated for the short-term (up to 5 days in adults) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. Oral ketorolac tromethamine is indicated only as continuation treatment following intravenous or intramuscular dosing of ketorolac tromethamine, if necessary. The total combined duration of use of oral ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine injection should not exceed 5 days.
Ketorolac tromethamine is not indicated for use in pediatric patients and it is NOT indicated for minor or chronic painful conditions. Increasing the dose of ketorolac tromethamine beyond the label recommendations will not provide better efficacy but will increase the risk of developing serious adverse events.
CARDIOVASCULAR THROMBOTIC EVENTS
- Ketorolac tromethamine can cause peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Therefore, ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
- Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).
RISK OF BLEEDING
- Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with advanced renal impairment and in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS).
Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery.
- Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, CONTRAINDICATED in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, patients with hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
INTRATHECAL OR EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION
- Hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from bronchospasm to anaphylactic shock, have occurred and appropriate counteractive measures must be available when administering the first dose of ketorolac tromethamine injection (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS). Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine or allergic manifestations to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
RISK DURING LABOR AND DELIVERY
- Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED for intrathecal or epidural administration due to its alcohol content.
CONCOMITANT USE WITH NSAIDs
- The use of ketorolac tromethamine in labor and delivery is CONTRAINDICATED because it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions.
- Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risk of inducing serious NSAID-related side effects.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Ketorolac Tromethamine Tablets
- Dosage should be adjusted for patients 65 years or older, for patients under 50 kg (110 lbs.) of body weight (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) and for patients with moderately elevated serum creatinine (see WARNINGS). Doses of ketorolac tromethamine injection are not to exceed 60 mg (total dose per day) in these patients.
- Ketorolac tromethamine tablets are indicated only as continuation therapy to ketorolac tromethamine injection, and the combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine injection and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 (five) days, because of the increased risk of serious adverse events.
- The recommended total daily dose of ketorolac tromethamine tablets (maximum 40 mg) is significantly lower than for ketorolac tromethamine injection (maximum 120 mg) (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).